Neck Pain Advice: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention Tips

Neck pain is a common issue affecting millions of people worldwide. This discomfort can range from mild stiffness to severe, debilitating agony, and can result from various factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, and underlying medical conditions. Understanding the main causes and available treatment options is crucial for those seeking relief from their neck pain.

The human neck is remarkably complex, consisting of muscles, bones, joints, nerves, and other vital structures. All of these components work together to support the weight of the head and allow for its range of motion. Consequently, our necks are particularly vulnerable to injury and strain, especially during strenuous activities or prolonged periods of improper posture. In some cases, neck pain may also stem from conditions like herniated discs or arthritis, creating tension and discomfort throughout the region.

Fortunately, there are several effective ways to manage and treat neck pain, which often involves a combination of self-care techniques, physiotherapy, and medical interventions. Identifying the root cause of the pain is the first step toward finding relief, as this enables the sufferer to address the issue with targeted solutions that cater to their specific needs. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional to assess the severity and cause of neck pain, ensuring that the appropriate measures are taken for optimal results.

Causes of Neck Pain

Neck pain is a common complaint that can be caused by a variety of factors. Identifying the underlying cause is essential for proper treatment and prevention.

Muscle Strain

Overuse or strain of the neck muscles can result in neck pain. This can be caused by activities such as:

  • Long hours of computer work
  • Reading in bed
  • Repetitive neck motions
  • Poorly executed exercise routines

Poor Posture

Consistently poor posture can lead to muscle imbalances and stress on the neck. Factors contributing to poor posture include:

  • Slouching while seated
  • Craneing the neck forward while using mobile devices
  • Sleeping without proper neck support


Traumatic events, such as car accidents, falls, or sports injuries, can damage the muscles, ligaments, or vertebrae of the neck, leading to pain.

Degenerative Conditions

Age-related wear and tear can cause degeneration of the cervical spine, leading to neck pain. Some common degenerative conditions include:

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Disc degeneration

Nerve Compression

Compression of the nerves in the neck can cause neck pain. This can occur due to:

  • Herniated discs
  • Bone spurs
  • Thickened ligaments

For more information, check out our in-depth article on the causes of neck pain.


Common Symptoms

Neck pain is often characterised by various common symptoms, which can be categorised as follows:

  • Stiffness: A feeling of tightness or restricted movement in the neck muscles
  • Soreness: Tenderness and discomfort in the neck area, especially when touched or during movement
  • Reduced range of motion: Difficulty turning the head or bending the neck, potentially affecting daily activities and overall quality of life

Associated Symptoms

In some cases, neck pain may be accompanied by additional symptoms which can help in identifying the underlying cause of the pain:

Associated Symptom Possible Cause
Headache Tension or muscle strain in the neck
Numbness or tingling in arms Nerve compression, possibly due to a herniated disc or cervical spondylosis
Weakness in arms or hands Spinal cord compression or nerve damage
Fever and swollen glands Infection, such as meningitis or a throat infection

It’s essential to recognize and report any associated symptoms to your healthcare provider, as they may assist in diagnosing the underlying condition and forming an appropriate treatment plan.

Want to learn more, then read our in depth article on the common symptoms of neck pain.


neck pain diagnosis

Diagnosing neck pain involves a thorough evaluation of the affected area to determine the source and severity of the discomfort. This section describes the steps physicians typically follow to diagnose neck pain.

Physical Examination

The first step in diagnosing neck pain is a physical examination. The physician will assess the patient’s neck, shoulders, and upper back to evaluate overall range of motion, strength, reflexes, and sensation in the affected areas. They will also ask the patient about their symptoms, medical history, and any activities that may contribute to the pain.

Imaging Tests

If the physical examination does not provide enough information to determine the cause of the pain, imaging tests may be necessary. These tests help the physician visualise the underlying structures and identify any issues contributing to the pain. Common imaging tests include:

  • X-rays: Provide images of the bones, including the presence of bone spurs or spinal degeneration.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Offers a detailed view of the soft tissues, such as muscles, tendons, and nerves.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Combines multiple X-ray images to create a detailed cross-sectional view of the neck structures.

Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Study

Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies may be used to assess the nerve function in the neck and upper extremity. These tests measure electrical activity in the muscles and nerves and can help identify nerve injury or compression.

An EMG involves inserting tiny needles into the muscles to measure electrical activity, while nerve conduction studies involve applying small electrical shocks to the nerves to measure the speed of electrical impulses. Together, these tests provide information on the function and integrity of the nerves and muscles surrounding the neck.

To learn more please read our in depth article on diagnosing neck pain.


Neck pain can be managed through a variety of treatments depending on the severity and cause of the pain.

Home Remedies

For minor neck pain, simple home remedies can often bring relief:

  • Rest: Give your neck time to heal by avoiding activities that strain it.
  • Ice and heat: Apply ice to the affected area for 20 minutes several times a day and switch to heat after a few days to help relax the muscles.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers: Non-prescription pain medications like ibuprofen or naproxen can help reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Stretching and gentle exercises: Gradual and controlled neck movements can help maintain flexibility and reduce stiffness.


In some cases, stronger medications may be necessary to manage neck pain:

  • Muscle relaxants: To help relieve muscle spasms and stiffness.
  • Prescription pain relievers: For more severe pain, a doctor may prescribe a stronger pain medication.
  • Antidepressants: Some antidepressants can help with pain relief and sleep issues caused by neck pain.


A physiotherapist can teach you exercises and techniques to improve your posture, strengthen your neck muscles, and increase flexibility, which can help manage neck pain and prevent its recurrence.

Alternative Therapies

Some people find relief from neck pain through alternative therapies:

  • Acupuncture: Thin needles are inserted into specific points on the body to help reduce pain.
  • Massage therapy: A professional massage can help relax tense neck muscles and reduce pain.


In rare cases, when neck pain is caused by a herniated disc or spinal cord compression, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the affected nerves or to correct other structural issues.

For information, please read our post dedicated on treatments for neck pain.


Neck pain can often be prevented by taking simple precautions and making lifestyle adjustments. This section covers some effective strategies for preventing neck pain: ergonomic adjustments, exercise and stretching, and maintaining good posture.

Ergonomic Adjustments

Making ergonomic adjustments to your work environment can significantly reduce the risk of developing neck pain. These adjustments may include:

  • Adjusting the height of your computer monitor so that the top of the screen is at eye level.
  • Using a chair with proper neck and lumbar support.
  • Positioning your keyboard and mouse to avoid excessive reaching or bending of the wrists.
  • Taking regular breaks to stand up, walk around, and stretch.

Exercise and Stretching

Regular exercise and stretching can help strengthen the muscles supporting the neck and improve flexibility. Some beneficial activities and stretches include:

  1. Aerobic exercises, such as swimming or walking, to promote blood flow and overall physical well-being.
  2. Gentle stretches that target the neck, shoulders, and upper back, performed daily.
  3. Strength training exercises to build supportive muscle, such as shoulder shrugs and resistance band pulls.

Maintaining Good Posture

Practising good posture is essential in preventing neck pain. Some tips for maintaining correct posture include:

Posture Tips
Keep both feet flat on the ground when sitting, with knees at a 90-degree angle.
Avoid slouching or leaning forward while sitting at a desk or computer.
Hold mobile devices at eye level to minimise strain on the neck.
Use a pillow that supports the natural curve of the neck when sleeping.


To learn more about preventing neck pain, please read our post dedicated on neck pain prevention.

When to See a Doctor

If you’re experiencing neck pain, it’s important to determine whether it’s time to consult a healthcare professional. While most cases of neck pain are mild and can be treated at home, there are instances when seeking medical attention is necessary.

It’s essential to see a doctor if you experience the following symptoms:

  • Severe or persistent pain that lasts for several days without improvement
  • Pain that radiates down your arms or legs
  • Loss of strength, numbness, or tingling in your arms or hands
  • Difficulty in moving your head or neck
  • Neck pain accompanied by headache, fever, or weight loss

If your neck pain is a result of an injury, such as a car accident or a fall, you should seek medical attention immediately. Traumatic injuries may cause damage to the spine, which could lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

It’s also essential to pay attention to any changes in the severity or nature of your neck pain. If you notice any worsening or new symptoms, it might be time to consult your doctor for further examination and appropriate treatment.

Are you looking for relief from neck pain? myPhysioSA can help. Our personalised treatment plans are designed to address the root cause of your pain and improve your quality of life. Book an appointment or call us 1300 189 289 and take the first step towards a more comfortable and pain-free life.